Electrical Engineering Optional

**How to prepare for electrical engineering optional?**

Electrical engineering is one of the specialized optional subjects. It is highly recommended that only electrical engineering graduates take this optional subject. They have high chances of scoring more and can easily understand and cover the whole syllabus. It is up to the candidate to determine the strong and weak areas while assessing the entire syllabus. And to study according to the strengths and weakness of the topic. This ensures an efficient way of studying the electrical engineering subject. If preparation is done in a right manner then a candidate can easily fetch good marks. Here are some tips which can be used by candidates while preparing for the electrical engineering optional:

- If you are a graduate of electrical engineering than you need not start from scratch unlike other students who from non engineering background. Being an engineering subject, it’s a technical subject and also a highly scoring subject. Marks can be easily scored in the subject if the answer of the question is well explained without leaving any room for marks deductions. Unlike humanities subjects, candidates need not to write long stories or big explanations while writing answers. The only thing is to be done is write precise answer including valid points.
- Chance of scoring is high in electrical engineering because candidates can fetch marks by using diagrams, numerical and flowcharts. This also helps to explain the answers well. Not only these practical questions but theoretical questions are also scoring. Every theory question if answered well and answer is up to the demands of the questions then no one can stop you from scoring well in that question. Use as many illustrations as much as possible to show case that you know the answer and also write all the relevant content which is necessary to explain the answer.
- Most of the questions asked in the electrical engineering are repeated from the previous year papers. Solving past year papers is essential to know what kind of questions may come in this year’s question paper. They will help in analyzing the topics through which maximum questions come. It will boost your preparation. Also most of the questions are in paper are direct and straightforward. So if you are thorough with the syllabus then you can score well. If your basics are clear and their proper conceptual clarity then you end up getting really good marks.
- Since electrical engineering optional subject also asks numerical questions. This requires practice of different questions. While practicing various numerical questions you will get an idea so as to where you are lacking. Also practicing questions will help you to solve the given questions faster. So when you will solve numerical in the final mains exam then you will be able to solve the question faster within limited time with more accuracy and efficiency. This will help to save time which can be further utilized for solving other questions. Hence practice will be advantageous for scoring well in the mains exam.
- The syllabus is vast for electrical engineering optional. It requires rigorous hard work to complete the syllabus. So to complete the syllabus on time it is better to follow a schedule according to which you will proceed your preparation. This can be done by allocating time to different topics of electrical engineering on a regular basis. Studying on a daily basis will help you to cover the entire syllabus in a limited time frame. Also make sure to complete every topic and don’t skip any. Most of the questions are direct and can be answered if you have basic understanding of the topic.
- If possible then join a coaching centre for the preparation. Coaching centre will provide you with the study material and other necessary notes which will be fruitful during preparation. Also you will be able to prepare in a more systematic manner. Most of the coaching institutes take tests on a weekly and monthly basis. This will help you to know where you stand in terms of other students. Giving these tests on a regular basis will boost your confidence and you can easily identify where you are losing marks. Also try not to repeat the mistakes done in the tests in the final exam. Thus joining a coaching will help you to enhance your preparation in a better way.
- Try to complete the syllabus before a month or weeks prior so that you have enough time left for the revision of what you studies. Revision is one of the most important things. Without revision you will not be able to absorb the content which you have studied while doing preparation. Thus keep a proper time for revising the entire syllabus before the exam. And try to revise at least two to three times before giving final exam.
- Another important aspect during preparation is present the answer in a more systematic manner rather than making a chaotic paragraph with no proper explanations. Presentation of answer will help you to gain more good marks in the exam and you can ace the mains exams easily.
- One of the most important aspects to remember during exam is to maintain consistency. Many a times students skip the studies and this hampers the growth of the preparation. So make sure while preparing you don’t give a break in between. Also give proper time to all topics so as nothing is left uncovered.

**ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING**

** PAPER-I **

**1. Circuits—Theory: **Circuit components; network graphs; KCL, KVL; circuit analysis methods: nodal analysis, mesh analysis; basic network theorems and applications; transient analysis: RL, RC and RLC circuits; sinusoidal steady-state analysis; resonant circuits; coupled circuits; balanced 3-phase circuits. Two-port networks.

**2. Signals and Systems: **Representation of continuous-time and discrete-time signals and systems; LTI systems; convolution; impulse response; time-domain analysis of LTI systems based on convolution and differential/difference equations. Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform, Transfer function. Sampling and recovery of signals DFT, FFT Processing of analogue signals through discrete-time systems.

**3. E.M. Theory: **Maxwell’s equations, wave propagation in bounded media. Boundary conditions, reflection and refraction of plane waves. Transmission lines: travelling and standing waves, impedance matching, Smith chart.

**4. Analog Electronics: **Characteristics and equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of Diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET. Diode circuits: Clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability. FET amplifiers. Current mirror; Amplifiers: single and multi-stage, differential, operational feedback and power. Analysis of amplifiers; frequency response of amplifiers. OPAMP circuits. Filters; sinusoidal oscillators: criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and OPAMP configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits. Linear and switching power supplies.

**5. Digital Electronics: **Boolean algebra; minimisation of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers and decoders. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Comparators, timers, multivibrators. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs. Semiconductor memories. Logic implementation using programmable devices (ROM, PLA, FPGA).

**6. Energy Conversion: **Principles of electromechanical energy conversion: Torque and emf in rotating machines. DC machines: characteristics and performance analysis; starting and speed control of motors. Transformers: principles of operation and analysis; regulation, efficiency; 3-phase transformers. 3-phase induction machines and synchronous machines: characteristics and performance analysis; speed control.

**7. Power Electronics and Electric Drives: Semiconductor** power devices: diode, transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and MOSFET-static characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters: fully-controlled and half-controlled; principles of thyristor choppers and inverters; DC-DC converters; Switch mode inverter; basic concepts of speed control of dc and ac motor drives applications of variable-speed drives.

**8. Analog Communication: **Random variables: continuous, discrete; probability, probability functions. Statistical averages; probability models; Random signals and noise: white noise, noise equivalent bandwidth; signal transmission with noise; a signal to noise ratio. Linear CW modulation: Amplitude modulation: DSB, DSB-SC and SSB. Modulators and Demodulators; Phase and Frequency modulation: PM & FM signals; narrows band FM; generation & detection of FM and PM, Deemphasis, Preemphasis. CW modulation system: Superheterodyne receivers, AM receivers, communication receivers, FM receivers, phase-locked loop, SSB receiver Signal to noise ratio calculation or AM and FM receivers.

**PAPER-II **

**1. Control Systems: **Elements of control systems; block-diagram representations; open-loop & closed-loop systems; principles and applications of feed-back. Control system components. LTI systems: time-domain and transform-domain analysis. Stability: Routh Hurwitz criterion, root-loci, Bode-plots and polar plots, Nyquist’s criterion; Design of lead-lad compensators. Proportional, PI, PID controllers. State-variable representation and analysis of control systems.

**2. Microprocessors and Microcomputers: **PC organisation; CPU, instruction set, register setting diagram, programming, interrupts, memory interfacing, I/O interfacing, programmable peripheral devices.

**3. Measurement and Instrumentation: **Error analysis; measurement of current-voltage, power, energy, power-factor, resistance, inductance, capacitance and frequency; bridge measurements. Signal conditioning circuit; Electronic measuring instruments: multimeter, CRO, digital voltmeter, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrum-analyser, distortion-meter. Transducers: thermocouple, thermistor, LVDT, strain-gauge, piezo-electric crystal.

**4. Power Systems: Analysis and Control: **Steady-state performance of overhead transmission lines and cables; principles of active and reactive power transfer and distribution; per-unit quantities; bus admittance and impedance matrices; load flow; voltage control and power factor correction; economic operation; symmetrical components, analysis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults. Concepts of system stability: swing curves and equal area criterion. Static VAR system. Basic concepts of HVDC transmission.

**5. Power System Protection: **Principles of overcurrent, differential and distance protection. Concept of solid-state relays. Circuit breakers. Computer-aided protection: Introduction; line, bus, generator, transformer protection; numeric relays and application of DSP to protection.

**6. Digital Communication: **Pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), delta modulation (DM), Digital modulation and demodulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequency keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK). Error control coding: error detection and correction, linear block codes, convolution codes. Information measure and source coding. Data networks, 7-layer architecture.