Medical Science Optional

Medical Science Optional

MEDICAL SCIENCE

 PAPER I

1. Human Anatomy : Applied anatomy including blood and nerve supply of upper and lower limbs and joints of shoulder, hip and knee. Gross anatomy, blood supply and lymphatic drainage of tongue, thyroid, mammary gland, stomach, liver, prostate, gonads and uterus. Applied anatomy of diaphragm, perineum and inguinal region. Clinical anatomy of kidney, urinary bladder, uterine tubes, vas deferens. Embryology : Placenta and placental barrier. Development of heart, gut, kidney. uterus, ovary, testis and their common congenital abnormalities. Central and Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System : Gross and clinical anatomy of ventricles of brain, circulation of cerebrospinal fluid; Neural pathways and lesions of cutaneous sensations, hearing and vision; Cranial nerves distribution and clinical significance; Components of autonomic nervous system.

2. Human Physiology : Conduction and transmission of impulse, mechanism of contraction, neuromuscular transmission, reflexes, control of equilibrium, posture and muscle tone, descending pathways, functions of cerebellum, basal ganglia, Physiology of sleep and consciousness. Endocrine System : Mechanism of action of hormones; formation, secretion, transport, metabolism, function and regulation of secretion of pancreas and pituitary gland. Physiology of Reproductive System : Pregnancy menstrual cycle, lactation, pregnancy. Blood : Development, regulation and fate of blood cells. Cardio-vascular, cardiac output, blood pressure, regulation of cardiovascular functions.

3. Biochemistry : Organ function tests—liver, kidney, thyroid Protein synthesis. Vitamins and minerals. Restriction fragment length. polymorphism (RFLP). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Radio-immunoassays (RIA).

 4. Pathology : Inflammation and repair, disturbances of growth and cancer, Pathogenesis and histopathology of rheumatic and ischaemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus. Differentiation between benign, malignant, primary and metastatic malignancies, Pathogenesis and histopathology of190 THE GAZETTE OF INDIA : EXTRAORDINARY [PART I—SEC. 1] bronchogenic carcinoma, carcinoma breast, oral cancer, cancer cervix, leukemia, Etiology, pathogenesis and histopathology of—cirrhosis liver, glomerulonephritis, tuberculosis, acute osteomyelitis.

5. Microbiology : Humoral and cell mediated immunity. Diseases caused by and laboratory diagnosis of — * Meningococcus, Saimonella * Shigella, Herpes, Dengue, Polio * HIV/AIDS, Malaria, E. Histolytica, Giardia * Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus.

6. Pharmacology : Mechanism of action and side effects of the following drugs : * Antipyretics and analgesics, Antibiotics, * Antimalaria, Antikala-azar, Antidiabetics, * Antihypertensive, Antidiuretics, General and cardiac vasodilators, Antiviral, Antiparasitic, Antifungal, Immunosuppressants, * Anticancer.

7. Forensic Medicine and Toxicology Forensic examination of injuries and wounds; Examination of blood and seminal stains; Poisoning, sedative overdose, hanging, drowning, burns, DNA and finger print study.

PAPER-II

1. General Medicine Etiology, clinical features, diagnosis and principles of management (including prevention) of—Typhoid, Rabies, AIDS, Dengue, Kala-azar, Japanese Encephalitis. Etiology, clinical features, diagnosis and principles of management of : Ischaemic heart disease, pulmonary embolism. Bronchial asthma. Pleural effusion, tuberculosis, Malabsorption syndromes; acid peptic diseases, Viral hepatitis and cirrhosis of liver. Glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis, renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, renovascular hypertension, complications of diabetes mellitus, coagulation disorders, leukaemia, Hypo and hyper thyrodism, meningitis and encephalitis. Imaging in medical problems, ultrasound, echo-cardiogram, CT scan, MRI. Anxiety and Depressive Psychosis and schizophrenia and ECT.

 2. Paediatrics Immunization, Baby friendly hospital, congenital cyanotic heart disease, respiratory distress syndrome, broncho— pneumonias, kernicterus. IMNCI classification and management, PEM grading and management. ARI and Diarrhea of under five and their management.

3. Dermatology Psoriasis, Allergic dermatitis, scabies, eczema, vitiligo, Stevan Johnson’s syndrome, Lichen Planus.

4. General Surgery Clinical features, causes, diagnosis and principles of management of cleft palate, harelip. Laryngeal tumour, oral and esophageal tumours. Peripheral arterial diseases, varicose veins, coarctation of aorta. Tumours of Thyroid, Adrenal, Glands. Abscess cancer, fibroadenoma and adenosis of breast. Bleeding peptic ulcer, tuberculosis of bowel, ulcerative colitis, cancer stomach. Renal mass, cancer prostatie. Haemothorax, stones of Gall bladder, Kidney, Ureter and Urinary Bladder. Management of surgical conditions of Rectum, Anus and Anal canal, Gall bladder and Bile ducts. Splenomegaly, cholecystitis, portal hypertension, liver abscess, peritonitis, carcinoma head of pancreas. Fractures of spine, Colles’ fracture and bone tumors. Endoscopy. Laprascopic Surgery.

5. Obstetrics and Gynaecology including Family Planning Diagnosis of pregnancy. Labour management, complications of 3rd stage, Antepartum and postpartum hemorrhage, resuscitation of the newborn, Management of abnormal life and difficult labour. Management of small for date or premature newborn. Diagnosis and management of anemia. Preeclampsia and Toxaemias of pregnancy, Management of Post-menopausal Syndrome. Intra-uterine devices, pills, tubectomy and vasectomy. Medical termination of pregnancy including legal aspects. Cancer cervix. Leucorrhoea, pelvic pain; infertility, dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB), amenorrhoea, Fibroid and prolapse of uterus.

6. Community Medicine (Preventive and Social Medicine) Principles, methods approach and measurements of Epidemiology. Nutrition, nutritional diseases/diorders and Nutrition Programmes. Health information Collection, Analysis and Presentation. Objectives, components and critical analysis of National programmes for control/eradication of : Malaria, Kala-azar, Filaria and Tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, STDs and Dengue. Critical appraisal of Health care delivery system. Health management and administration; Techniques, Tools, Programme Implementation and Evaluation. Objectives, Components, Goals and Status of Reproductive and Child Health, National Rural Health Mission and Millennium Development Goals. Management of hospital and industrial waste.

How to prepare for medical science optional for IAS?

Medical science is one of the optional subjects offered by UPSC for the civil service main exam. It is one of the specialized subjects and can be taken by students with a science background like MBBS graduate and postgraduate. As a fresh graduate, you don’t need to start anything from scratch. You must be more familiar with all the concepts and only need to brush these concepts. This would act as the biggest advantage for you as being a science student.  Given below are various tips that will further strengthen your preparation.

1.         The syllabus of medical science is vast. So the foremost thing a candidate needs to do is understand the entire syllabus as a whole. Figure out the topics that require your attention and need a deeper understanding. Analyze your strength and weakness. Through this analysis, you will be in a better position to prepare in a more systematic and planned way. Practice the topics at which you are weak. Develop a better understanding of concepts and brush up the topics at which you are good. After developing a deep understanding of the topics, you can easily move forward with the preparation. The journey of preparation will be more easier if you are well versed about your weaknesses because this provides you an opportunity to  work on these areas while maintaining a balance with your strong areas.

2.         Make a schedule. Write down the topics that need to be covered by the end of the week. Set your weekly and monthly targets about the syllabus.  Thus cover the whole of the syllabus by setting these targets. In this way, you will be able to complete the entire syllabus within a limited time framework. Also through this schedule, a candidate will be able to study each and every topic in depth by building conceptual clarity.

3.         After completing the syllabus don’t neglect the revision. Revision is as important as the learning at the initial phase. After completing the syllabus revise everything on a regular basis. If you will keep on revising then you will be able to retain everything in a better way. Also while revising you can make a list of topics that are well covered and you can keep them for a later phase that is before the exam. And make another list where you can include topics that need to be revised and need more conceptual clarity. Try to work on the topics which you have written in the list. By following this strategy a candidate will find fruitful results and preparation will run in a smoother manner. Also by following this candidate will score far better than others and will come out with flying colors.

4.         One of the biggest advantages is that medical science unlike other optional subjects is a rational and scientific subject. If you have written the answer briefly and explained everything in a proper manner then you can definitely expect a good score, unlike other optional subjects that are subject to interpretation. There is no room for interpretation so your marks cannot be deducted at any stage and you will score according to the way you have written it and explained the concept.

5.         Also, you need to have a genuine interest in the subject. If you don’t have then develop it while studying it. Because if you have an interest then the syllabus can be completed easily otherwise it would be hard to study it and complete the syllabus on time. Try to understand the concepts since unlike other optional subjects you don’t need to mug up a variety of facts or figures. Build a foundation about concepts and understand everything with a logical mindset.

6.         In addition to this draw diagrams in the questions. Even if a question does not explicitly ask for the diagram still draw it if the answer has a diagram. This will give the impression that you know all the relevant diagrams. Draw neat diagrams and present them in a systematic manner. Also, the presentation of the answer matters a lot so present the answer in the best possible way. Also, write down all the relevant content and definitions etc so that no stone remains unturned. In this, you will be able to cover every aspect of the question. These tips will definitely help you to fetch more marks and thus score well in the final exam.

7.         If we compare paper I with paper II then paper II is relatively more dynamic in nature in comparison to paper II.  Paper-II contains many case studies so for this you can refer to many PG books available in order to gain insight about the kind of questions on the same. Also, keep on studying these case studies to better understand them because at the first instance you might find them tough and a hard nut to crack but with persistent practice, you can ace through it.

8.         Another key aspect to follow is that if you are given a choice between the static and forensic medicine questions. So it’s better to choose the questions which are direct in nature. Forensic medicine deals with subjects like rape, suicide, etc. That’s why it is better to be clear when provided with a choice.  Also if you happen to deal with such questions try to avoid being biased and be objective while answering such questions.

9.         Try solving past year papers. They will help you to gain knowledge as to what kind of questions previously asked and thus you can prepare according to a similar pattern. Also, past year papers are a reliable source to practice questions. They will also help to analyze as what are the possible questions that might come up this year.  Also, you will be able to draw a comparison as to what kind of topics is asked most of the time in the question papers and whatnot. In this way solving these papers will be a fruitful exercise and thus will help you to gain a good score.